Archive for the ‘ OUDF103 (Animation) ’ Category

History Of 3D Animation (Post Four From primitive animation to modern)

After the inventions of many older smaller devices that could produce little animations, how did this turn into animation on a large scale in the cinema. Well by now the animators new all the basic principle of animation from the frames to movement, but what they needed now was something to make them longer and to be able to project them.

A magic lantern as they were called was an early form of projector it consisted of had painted and photographic glass plates that when light was shone though it displayed a larger image. This was a large leap forwards to the development of the moving picture as they were the most frequently use projection device.  The majority of the fact suggest that the magic l was invented by Christiaan Huygens he describes a similar device in his 1671 version ‘The Great Science of Light and dark’, By the mid 18th centenary magic lanterns were used to project shows and were a very popular form of entertainment. The early forms of lantern show used simple silhouettes, but as the shows became more popular the slides were also enhanced to create a more developed form of entertainment. The first most developed slides had subtitled images and in the 1850’s photographic slides were produced.

Chreutoscope – This was developed in 1866 by L.S Beale this device allowed the slide count to be increased that could be displayed in rapid succession the result of this was a moving image.


Zoopraiscope – Around the time of 1879 Wadweard Muybridge invented a device that could allow the images from his motion studies to be displayed through a magic lantern to creat a single moving figure.


This is how the fundermentals of animation begun and the basis of flim making from the Disney animation to modern clay stop motion the principals have still remains the same.


(2008, The Animation Bible, Maureen Furniss)

The History of 3D animation (Post Three Early Animation)

For some animation was just a dream a simple flicker book, but for others it was something that was yet to be ventured into. Animation has been around for over one hundred years, starting off with a simple cave painting but when did the illusion of movement that make up todays animation start. The very first animated film was projected  over a century ago only a few years after the Lumiere brothers publicly screen live action films on paris 1895. Ever since then animation has change over the years and has become more advance as other technologies have, giving animators more tools to created animation. There have been many early attempts of creating the illusion of movement in the thirteenth century an english monk Roger Bacon Made talking heads out of bronze, Around 1641 a german inventer called Athanasius Kircher know for his inventions of ‘magic machines’ invented a dancing female figure that would perform on stage surrounded by mirrors, the mirrors gave the impression it was surrounded by many others. Automated toy have been around since the 18th century there were walking and speaking dolls mass marketed in the the USA, this technologie to be use in simular concept for more modern 3d clay animation. Tomas Edison Mass produce the taking doll soon after the invention of the sound recording device, his dolls were not that succsessfull as his sound recording device war down making it useless. Around that time Thomas Edison invented may other technologies making him a fortune including the invention of the Motion Picture.

Thaumatrope – At first it took someone to understand the principle of the human eye and how we process images to understand how to create an illusion of movement. It was Frenchman called Paul Roget, the inventor of the Thaumatrope that first achieved this in 1828. The Thaumatrope is a circular disc with a piece of string attached to both sides, one of the sides had a picture of a bird on it and the other side had a picture of an empty cage. When the disk was spun fast enough it gave the illusion that the bird was inside the cage.

Phenakistoscope – It cannot be said that there is a particular founder of animation, as there were various people working on different animation ideas. Around about the same time a man called Joseph Plateau was working on a device called the Phenakistoscope; it was a reel of sequential pictures placed in a cylinder with slits around the edges. This was then spun to give the impression the object was moving, this was later developed in 1860 by a man called Pierre Desvignes.

For many year people studied the motion of movement in  1872 Etienne – jules Marey created a device that monitored the movement of a person walking, it worked out each point of the foot though the walk cycle. so moment its self had been very well document by the time of animation, he also developed a camera that took pictures of a bird in flight that captured a picture of each sequence of the flight and each stage of the wings flapping.

Stop Motion – In the early 19 hundreds animators such as Stuart Blackton started using a technique called ‘stop motion’ this is the combination of images or “cells” depicting a scene, each scene would contain a number of cells (frames) that would create a moving image. Each of these frame have 1 image.  He began the process by drawing a face on a blackboard, he would then capture this in a photo and the original image would be erased thus creating one cell, to create the illusion of movement the process would then be replicated and the expression on the face would be slightly altered this would be done several times and when the cells were combined on film you would have an animation of a man changing his expression. This technique is very similar to modern day method of clay animation.

Flicker Book – This is a book with a different picture on each page. The pages are in chronological order an each page is a slightly different to the last I.E the mans leg has slightly been moved. Once compilations of pages have been put together you hold the spine of the book and flick thought the pages. Just like a modem day computer it flicks though a series of picture in a matter of a second creating an illusion of movement.

So by the early 20th century people understood the use of frames and that you had to see the same frame in the same place with a slight change in movement to create the illusion of real moment, but what use is a three second animation and how would this develop.


(2008, The Animation Bible, Maureen Furniss)

The History of 3D animation (Post Two Early Animation)

Animation Is a way of telling the viewer a story though images, that would mean to animate you would need a set of images telling a story. The first images shown to do this were from the Aurignican Period  so what 32,000 years ago on  the inner side of cave walls. The actual Purpose of the painting is unknown they may have been use for religious purposes, decorative purposes, or comunicatine with others.

Although the images are not what is seen to day as animation it is the very basses that animation is created from, these images may not create the illusion of movement  by if you follow them they do tell a story. It will be many of thousands of years before modern day animation is created.

(Cave Paintings and the Human Spirit: The Origin of Creativity and Belief) David S. Whitley

Distribution Pixar And Disney

Pixar was originally the graphics department of LUCAS Films, which was bought by Apple Co-founder Steve Jobs in 1986. Pixar was founded as a Graphics Group. At first Piaxr developed high end computer hard ware, their main product was the Pixar image Computer  for use in hospitals for producing 3d images of scans ect.

As the the company was still unsuccessful in the computer graphics market Pixar employee John Lasseter who had been creating many short animations to show off the capabilities of there computer premiered hus cretions at the SIGGRAPH, the computer graphics industry’s largest convention. Lasseter’s animation department began creating computer animations for other companies. Over the next coming years Pixar would loose more employees and  was still very much unsuccessful, until Walt Disney  Feature Animation proposed a deal to Pixar for $26  million it would produce three computer animated films, the first being Toy Story (1995).  Even after the income from these three products was received Pixar was still losing money and steve jobs considered selling the company. Disney confirmed that it would distribute Toy Story for the 1995 holiday season and Steve Jobs kept the company.


After the production of Toy Story 2 Pixar had a disagreement with Disney, Toy Story 2 was mad for the straight-to-video release making it not part of the original $26 million three animation deal, but it was upgraded to a theate release during production. Pixar Wanted this to be part of the three film agreement but it was refuses by Disney, For this film the Profits and productioon cost were spilt 50-50 but disney still owned the writes to the sequel and also collected a distribution fee. As Disney had the writes to a sequel and Pixar had the technologie to create the sequel they two companies started laying there platforms as a partnership.


Pixar then wanted to come up with an agreement with Disney that they only distribute the movies and that Pixar own the movies and collected 100% of the profits as they wanted to finance there own movies.  After these disagreements Disney decided to acquire Pixar for $7.4 billion, putting disney on the board of director for Pixar.

The History of 3D animation (Post One Collaboration)

Within the next few blog post I will be researching the history of 3d animation from computer animation to clay stop motion and how it has developed from earlier 2D t0 drawn animation.

Some one has initially invented Animation or we would not have it exists today, or was it the effort of more then one person. We can ask when was animation first in development to become what it is today but after reading the book Group Genius (Keith Sawyer 2007) this book explains something called Invisible collaboration. Creative collaboration is were people work together to create something both developing together, this gives two ways of creating and solving problems that may occur. Invisible collaboration is were someone unknown develops or uses your technologie to create a new or more enhanced tecnologie, A excellent example of invisible collaboration is the internet, the first personal computer were around from the early 70’s wich could do basic word processing. The US government and other third parties were trying to develop a a system that could send information such as messages down a network, to many places and over long distances. The use of phones ment that there has to be a poing to point contact between the two people wanting to call each other, so to call many people there had to be a physical point to point contact between everyone.

The internet was design so there were a fewer points of contact, the computers in one area would connect to one main point and the main point to another main point further away, if the main point is broken it can be redirected.

First it was able to sent messages and as computer became more advance the internet became more advance, it became use by the public and developers found new uses for it such as business web sites that allow you to look at what they sell, youtube were you can share your videos. The collaboration of these technologies have now led to the use of the internet being use within television to watch what you want when you want it.


This brings me Back to animationk a single person may not have invented animation as a whole, but as animation took centuries to develop they may have contributed to the next stages to the animation process. As the first images were produce on early caves, someone then invented the process of creating simple movement; then real movement ect.

OUDF103- Deformers

Create deformer > Nonlinear = Bend, Flair, Sine, Squash, Twist and wave.

– To practice using the deformers create a polygon primitive cube. Create > polygon primitive > cube

– Extend the cube in the in the channels box and add 20 subdivitions

-Then go to create deformer > Nonlinear

When the deformer is place in the scene it is show by a line, for it to work the line has to be going though the rectangle. select the deformer an the rotate it.  the attributes for the deformer are in the right hand box.

>Bend deformer

The bend tool bend objects


The flare Bulges a objects


Sin creates a like a wave




OUDF103 – 3d animation

Process one – 3D modelling is crating the basic shape of the model through mathematical formulas often using polygons, this make up the skeleton of the model. Generally the more polygons used the smother and more detailed a model will be but the slower the rendering time, with more modern models to over come this problem they tend to concentrate on shading to create a more detailed look. Detail is then added with lighting and other effects so that it is ready for animating.


Process two – Animation is creating the illusion of movement thought the use of still images, using similar techniques to are used in stop animation. To create this illusion an image will be displayed on a screen e.g. monitor or television screen then replaced with an almost identical image only this time it is slightly changed E.g. a hand will be slightly moved. This is called tweening with it having a wire frame or skeleton this enables the 3d object to move or be altered. For a smoother motion around 12 of these images (frames) are displayed at within a second.


Process three – 3D rendering is were a three dimensional wire frame model will be converted into a still image each of these images will be made into a frame.


Vertices are a set potion or coordinate which can also help with other information such as colour and vector coordinates, an edge is the line that connects the coordinates. A face is a closed set of edges, so a triangle face will have three edges and a quadrilateral face will have four edges and a polygon is a set of faces, joining up to create a surface.