Archive for the ‘ Contextual and Theoretical Studies ’ Category

History Of 3D Animation (Post Four From primitive animation to modern)

After the inventions of many older smaller devices that could produce little animations, how did this turn into animation on a large scale in the cinema. Well by now the animators new all the basic principle of animation from the frames to movement, but what they needed now was something to make them longer and to be able to project them.

A magic lantern as they were called was an early form of projector it consisted of had painted and photographic glass plates that when light was shone though it displayed a larger image. This was a large leap forwards to the development of the moving picture as they were the most frequently use projection device.  The majority of the fact suggest that the magic l was invented by Christiaan Huygens he describes a similar device in his 1671 version ‘The Great Science of Light and dark’, By the mid 18th centenary magic lanterns were used to project shows and were a very popular form of entertainment. The early forms of lantern show used simple silhouettes, but as the shows became more popular the slides were also enhanced to create a more developed form of entertainment. The first most developed slides had subtitled images and in the 1850’s photographic slides were produced.

Chreutoscope – This was developed in 1866 by L.S Beale this device allowed the slide count to be increased that could be displayed in rapid succession the result of this was a moving image.


Zoopraiscope – Around the time of 1879 Wadweard Muybridge invented a device that could allow the images from his motion studies to be displayed through a magic lantern to creat a single moving figure.


This is how the fundermentals of animation begun and the basis of flim making from the Disney animation to modern clay stop motion the principals have still remains the same.


(2008, The Animation Bible, Maureen Furniss)

The History of 3D animation (Post Three Early Animation)

For some animation was just a dream a simple flicker book, but for others it was something that was yet to be ventured into. Animation has been around for over one hundred years, starting off with a simple cave painting but when did the illusion of movement that make up todays animation start. The very first animated film was projected  over a century ago only a few years after the Lumiere brothers publicly screen live action films on paris 1895. Ever since then animation has change over the years and has become more advance as other technologies have, giving animators more tools to created animation. There have been many early attempts of creating the illusion of movement in the thirteenth century an english monk Roger Bacon Made talking heads out of bronze, Around 1641 a german inventer called Athanasius Kircher know for his inventions of ‘magic machines’ invented a dancing female figure that would perform on stage surrounded by mirrors, the mirrors gave the impression it was surrounded by many others. Automated toy have been around since the 18th century there were walking and speaking dolls mass marketed in the the USA, this technologie to be use in simular concept for more modern 3d clay animation. Tomas Edison Mass produce the taking doll soon after the invention of the sound recording device, his dolls were not that succsessfull as his sound recording device war down making it useless. Around that time Thomas Edison invented may other technologies making him a fortune including the invention of the Motion Picture.

Thaumatrope – At first it took someone to understand the principle of the human eye and how we process images to understand how to create an illusion of movement. It was Frenchman called Paul Roget, the inventor of the Thaumatrope that first achieved this in 1828. The Thaumatrope is a circular disc with a piece of string attached to both sides, one of the sides had a picture of a bird on it and the other side had a picture of an empty cage. When the disk was spun fast enough it gave the illusion that the bird was inside the cage.

Phenakistoscope – It cannot be said that there is a particular founder of animation, as there were various people working on different animation ideas. Around about the same time a man called Joseph Plateau was working on a device called the Phenakistoscope; it was a reel of sequential pictures placed in a cylinder with slits around the edges. This was then spun to give the impression the object was moving, this was later developed in 1860 by a man called Pierre Desvignes.

For many year people studied the motion of movement in  1872 Etienne – jules Marey created a device that monitored the movement of a person walking, it worked out each point of the foot though the walk cycle. so moment its self had been very well document by the time of animation, he also developed a camera that took pictures of a bird in flight that captured a picture of each sequence of the flight and each stage of the wings flapping.

Stop Motion – In the early 19 hundreds animators such as Stuart Blackton started using a technique called ‘stop motion’ this is the combination of images or “cells” depicting a scene, each scene would contain a number of cells (frames) that would create a moving image. Each of these frame have 1 image.  He began the process by drawing a face on a blackboard, he would then capture this in a photo and the original image would be erased thus creating one cell, to create the illusion of movement the process would then be replicated and the expression on the face would be slightly altered this would be done several times and when the cells were combined on film you would have an animation of a man changing his expression. This technique is very similar to modern day method of clay animation.

Flicker Book – This is a book with a different picture on each page. The pages are in chronological order an each page is a slightly different to the last I.E the mans leg has slightly been moved. Once compilations of pages have been put together you hold the spine of the book and flick thought the pages. Just like a modem day computer it flicks though a series of picture in a matter of a second creating an illusion of movement.

So by the early 20th century people understood the use of frames and that you had to see the same frame in the same place with a slight change in movement to create the illusion of real moment, but what use is a three second animation and how would this develop.


(2008, The Animation Bible, Maureen Furniss)

The History of 3D animation (Post Two Early Animation)

Animation Is a way of telling the viewer a story though images, that would mean to animate you would need a set of images telling a story. The first images shown to do this were from the Aurignican Period  so what 32,000 years ago on  the inner side of cave walls. The actual Purpose of the painting is unknown they may have been use for religious purposes, decorative purposes, or comunicatine with others.

Although the images are not what is seen to day as animation it is the very basses that animation is created from, these images may not create the illusion of movement  by if you follow them they do tell a story. It will be many of thousands of years before modern day animation is created.

(Cave Paintings and the Human Spirit: The Origin of Creativity and Belief) David S. Whitley

The History of 3D animation (Post One Collaboration)

Within the next few blog post I will be researching the history of 3d animation from computer animation to clay stop motion and how it has developed from earlier 2D t0 drawn animation.

Some one has initially invented Animation or we would not have it exists today, or was it the effort of more then one person. We can ask when was animation first in development to become what it is today but after reading the book Group Genius (Keith Sawyer 2007) this book explains something called Invisible collaboration. Creative collaboration is were people work together to create something both developing together, this gives two ways of creating and solving problems that may occur. Invisible collaboration is were someone unknown develops or uses your technologie to create a new or more enhanced tecnologie, A excellent example of invisible collaboration is the internet, the first personal computer were around from the early 70’s wich could do basic word processing. The US government and other third parties were trying to develop a a system that could send information such as messages down a network, to many places and over long distances. The use of phones ment that there has to be a poing to point contact between the two people wanting to call each other, so to call many people there had to be a physical point to point contact between everyone.

The internet was design so there were a fewer points of contact, the computers in one area would connect to one main point and the main point to another main point further away, if the main point is broken it can be redirected.

First it was able to sent messages and as computer became more advance the internet became more advance, it became use by the public and developers found new uses for it such as business web sites that allow you to look at what they sell, youtube were you can share your videos. The collaboration of these technologies have now led to the use of the internet being use within television to watch what you want when you want it.


This brings me Back to animationk a single person may not have invented animation as a whole, but as animation took centuries to develop they may have contributed to the next stages to the animation process. As the first images were produce on early caves, someone then invented the process of creating simple movement; then real movement ect.

Creative Colabaration

Withing this blog I am going to discus the structure of companies that use creating collaboration, how they use it and the advantages of using creative collaboration along side their main companies structure.

Companies structures

Pre-bureaucratic structures – This structure is often use in small businesses it is were there is only one person(s) in command and there are very few departments to run, they are solely responsible for delegating tasks. The task are delegated on a one to one basis, this helps the person(s) in charge to control all aspects of the business, which is what is needed for small companies to grow.

Hierarchical structure – This structure follows on from the pre-bureaucratic structure, it is a more develop structure that works in the same way but for bigger businesses with more departments.

The structure has a main management with different departments, the different departments will be in charge of completing different tasks, each department will have sub departments that will be in charge on other tasks that will complate the task that the main management has assigned the main department.

Matrix structure – This structure is were there will be generally a main management and all the departments are on the same level to create there out come.

(Organizations: Behavior, Structure, Processes by James Gibson, John Ivancevich and Robert Konopaske (Mar 25, 2011)

The hierarchical structure and the Matrix structure are the most common structures to use creative collaboration as the different department will work individually to create there own outcome. For a games companies there will be a department who make the levels, store and characters. For the character designers to be successful they will need to know more about the characters background. Final the character designers  will work closely with the level designer so they can create gadgets and items for the character to use within the level.

Collaboration often doesn’t have to be a company sitting at a desk working out how to create something new, ofter company developer previous ideas. Take video for example someone invented the photograph, another person discovered the use of animation with drawing then a third person used these ideas to create the modern day video, this is also collaboration. (Group Genius, Keith Sawyer).

The use of creative collaboration in games

As we are can see creative collaboration allows the development of products to ether combined them or to improve them, but collaboration does not always start with companies coming up with ideas and seeing if they will sell, many companies allow they user to to give feed back or or allow the user to be able to develop there product so they are able to see the next trends that they will be able to create to make money out of.

Critical Analysis of A Animation

Finding Nemo


Finding nemo starts off with a farther and a mother fish living in there coral reef with there 400 or so eggs, a shark attack leaves the farther alone with only one egg left. The farther rases the egg until it is a young fish, as the egg is his only child he is very protective over him. Thats the basic idea of the story is that the farther finds it hard to let go and the child as he has been too protected for so long that he is very ambits to see the open sea. The young fish begins to resent the farther for being so protective, one day the young fish is capture by fishers and then the farther begins his journey to find his spouse.


The farther found it hard to let go of his child and the child wanted to discover the open sea, now it has gone to the extreme the farther ha had his son take away and the son has bee taken far away. I think the main them is is the coming of age and the stresses that all parents have to go through when there child grows up.

Game Theory, Addiction and Immersion.

The implication for someone who works in the industry are very high, as they are working in an industry that is trying to achieve new forms of entertainment, but at the same time having negative effects as well. Does this not apply to anything in society auto-motives were invented for convenience and also help the economy of the country but every day they jeopardise peoples lives. Also cloths are a necessity to keep warm and for practicality but there are many people who become obsessed and get themselves into credit card debt buy more then they need.
Everyone needs some form of entertain ment in there lives to prevent bordom and to make their lives enjoyable, just like people need cloths and a house to live in. The industry needs to play more of a role in helping people identifie what they need to what they think they need; to help them keep in control of there lives. In the way that they are in control of how much entertainment, clothes buying for example they have/do so it is in there financial and social capabilities.
Entertainment has been around for thousands of years it is something that brings pleasure to ones life. Something that pleasures somebody will make that person what more, no one whats to do things in there life that brings them stress, anxiety or anger for instance work. People only do these thing to reep the rewards of pleasure, for example if snowbording brought me pleasure i would have to  work and save up for flight tickets ect. but for someone who is brought pleasure by say an xbox, once the initial games console has been purchased than it is so easy to access that pleasure as it is just the simplicity of pressing the on button. For this pleasure to be so accessible it can be hard for someone to turn the pleasure (xbox) off and return to normal life that can bring stress ect. This can lead to ‘addiction’, young children are especially susceptible to addiction as there is no cost to the pleasure, they dont have to save up to have the pleasure or go out to work to pay for the electricity to run the xbox so the pleasure is just conveniently always there.
With the advances of modern technologie it makes immersion within games easier and more convincing, so that games can not just become addicting because they are fun to play but the person holding the controller can become the person on screen. For some people this allows them to play out their own personal fantasies allowing them to play out there life how they wish it was to be. By doing this they are living there perfect life and would rather spend more time in this life then within there own as they are ‘happer’ there.
For some people they say that other then games consoles ‘they can not find anything else to do’ or this can be understood that they can not find anything else to bring them pleasure. This may be because they do not want to try other things as they feel it may not bring them the pleasure they get from their games console, so the easiest thing to do is not to try at all. As with games consoles apart from the newer kinect it is rather an inactive form of entertainment, for someone with a lazy personality this inactiveness could contribute to there behaviour making it harder for them to stop playing.